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Distributing design element across multiple artboards should be handled through components and nested components.
Illustrator's layer panel and global layering system is an ancient relic for organising elements on a single artboard, dating back to before CS4 when Illustrator introduced multiple artboards.
The way XD displays only the elements on the artboard in its layer panel, took me some time to get used to, but now when I return to illustrator if find XDs system far superior. In my opinion it would even benefit Illustrator to approach XD system AND it's take on components. (Illustrators symbol-manager is perhaps even more stale than its layer system and too tied to Flash in its functionality. But that is fora nother discussion.)